With a population of over 91.7 million people, approximately 43.9% are under the age of 15 years. Public expenditure on education is 4.7% of GDP (2010) and health is 2.6% of GDP (2011).


Net enrolment rates for primary school have seen a marked increase over the last decade as Ethiopia has made significant strides in universal primary school education. The gender parity index illustrates a gender bias in education, which increases by education level. Primary attendance and enrolment is high, however, this is not the case with secondary attendance. An estimated 38.4% of primary and secondary schools provide Life Skills education, which includes information on HIV and AIDS.  Continued efforts should be made to target out of school young people so that they can access Life Skills and comprehensive sexuality education. Currently there is a compulsory HIV and AIDS syllabus on components of comprehensive sexuality education that is being developed. The Ethiopian curriculum also orientates parents on HIV and AIDS education on a yearly basis.


In comparison to the rest of the ESA region, Ethiopia has low prevalence of HIV and AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), however, knowledge and condom use are equally low.

The HIV and AIDS Education Strategic Plan For Intensifying Multi-sectoral HIV and AIDS Response in Ethiopia recognizes the importance of reaching young people and educating them on HIV, AIDS and sexuality. It employs a number of strategies to promote sexuality education and sexual and reproductive health services that are young-people friendly. This is done through peer education programmes, anti-AIDS clubs and girls clubs, which provide young people with educational information on sex and sexuality. The National Reproductive Health Strategy (2006-2015) recognises the importance of education in achieving positive reproductive health outcomes for the country and for young people in particular.

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